'Very, very hard to breathe': Experts call wildfires a 'major public health concern' for Canada
Chris Tanych woke up with a coughing fit in the early hours of Wednesday morning as a smoky haze from wildfires in Quebec and northeastern Ontario blanketed Ottawa for a third straight day.
Tanych, who has asthma, said matters only got worse for his health by the afternoon, when air quality in the capital city remained high risk under Environment Canada’s Air Quality Health Index (AQHI). Toronto’s air quality was also deemed high risk on Wednesday and ranked in the top five worst air quality and pollution city rankings around the world.
“It's like I'm a 50-year-old smoker, like I have to clear my throat constantly. I feel like I have a frog in my throat, I’m coughing up phlegm,” the 28-year-old told CTVNews.ca in a phone interview.
“It’s very, very hard to breathe outside. I go outside and after 10, 20 seconds, I start literally feeling like I'm about to cough my head out and I go into a violent cough.”
Tanych works as a landscape advisor, personal training specialist and a golf coach and said he’s having to take time off work because he can’t perform physically with the smoke lingering in his city, which he likened to campfire smoke. His mental health has also taken a hit.
“I’m anxious, depressed, gloomy,” Tanych said.
“I’m actually planning to go visit my mom in Gananoque for a few days until the smoke clears over — pun unintended.”
As forest fires rage across the country, experts are sounding the alarm over the physical and psychological impacts of the wildfires and saying that they pose a serious public health issue, which individuals and governments need to acknowledge and act upon.
“It’s definitely a major public health concern,” said Matthew Adams, an assistant professor in the department of geography, geomatics and environment at the University of Toronto Mississauga.
Raluca Radu, a registered nurse who teaches a course on the health impacts of climate change at the University of British Columbia, seconded that remark.
“Given the fact that the climate crisis is only getting worse, we do need to take into account wildfire smoke as a public health concern that we should have preparedness in place for, from year to year,” Radu told CTVNews.ca in a phone interview.
HEALTH IMPACTS OF WILDFIRES
The physical health impacts of wildfires vary in different regions, Adams said.
In areas like Toronto and Ottawa that are experiencing smoke from fires that are burning elsewhere, he said people may experience short-term symptoms like coughing, congestion, dry eyes, watery eyes and rapid heart rate increases, which usually happen the day of exposure up to the following three days.
People with asthma or other respiratory and heart diseases may feel those conditions flare up. In serious cases, they may also end up in the hospital.
In areas such as Western Canada and parts of Quebec, where there are persistent wildfires, Adams said residents are likely to experience those short-term symptoms in addition to possibly developing heart and respiratory diseases due to long-term smoke exposure.
A cyclist rides as smoke from wildfires in Ontario and Quebec obscures Parliament Hill in Ottawa on Tuesday, June 6, 2023. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean KilpatrickWildfires can also impact people’s mental health, Radu said, noting that ecological anxiety tends to instil fear in people when they look at the future threat of climate change.
Anxiety, depression, panic attacks, lack of sleep and not wanting to engage in activities are some of the things to look out for, she said.
Post-traumatic stress disorder may also present in people who have previously been in close proximity to wildfires or have had to evacuate their homes due to a fire.
WHO IS MOST VULNERABLE?
The elderly, young children, pregnant women, people experiencing homelessness, those with pre-existing health conditions and people who work outdoors are among the most vulnerable to the health impacts of wildfires.
“We know that the climate crisis is also an equity crisis, so for individuals in these categories who don't really have an option in terms of how they sustain themselves (and) their jobs expose them to these unfortunate conditions, we see those risks are exacerbated in these populations,” Radu explained.
Indigenous communities are also vulnerable in the face of wildfires, Radu said, as they tend to live near forested areas or wildland and rely heavily on the environment.
“They are so deeply connected to the land and so when you disrupt them from land-based activities, which is such a critical part of their livelihood, that will have significant mental health repercussions on those populations,” she added.
MITIGATING THE HEALTH IMPACTS OF WILDFIRES
In order to mitigate the health impacts of wildfires, experts say action is required from both the community and individual levels.
At the community level, Radu said governments need to ensure that emergency preparedness plans and public health alerts are in place and widely accessible so people know how to protect themselves when there is a wildfire and/or poor air quality where they live.
“There needs to be a stronger effort from these sources to ensure every group of people is reached,” Radu said.
As part of those emergency preparedness plans, she said opening recreation centres and facilities to the public during such extreme weather events could help people find relief and still look after their physical and mental health by exercising indoors and interacting with others.
Blair Feltmate, head of the Intact Centre on Climate Adaptation at the University of Waterloo, said the federal government should launch a national campaign on wildfire protection education.
“That would actually be at the very top of the list because we know people will act when given that guidance,” he said in a phone interview with CTVNews.ca.
In a statement Wednesday, which was also Clean Air Day, Health Minister Jean-Yves Duclos said he is committed to working with partners to fight climate change and ensure Canada has the policies, programs and resources in place “to promote clean air and reduce air pollution across Canada.”
“The Government has taken action to protect Canadians from the adverse effects of air pollution through regulations on emissions, creating national air quality standards, and providing the Air Quality Health Index forecasts for communities across Canada,” Duclos said.
“I believe that by working together, we can make a real difference and ensure that future generations will be able to breathe clean, healthy air.”
In an emailed statement to CTVNews.ca, Health Canada said the Public Health Agency of Canada said it “regularly undertakes a range of activities to support Canada’s preparedness and response capacity on an ongoing basis,” including stockpiling of medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals for the National Emergency Strategic Stockpile.
Among other things, the federal department said it has also co-ordinated the delivery of supplies such as cots, blankets, ward boxes, and disposable sheets to Alberta to support the province’s wildfire response, and deployed air quality monitors to Nova Scotia, British Columbia and the Yukon to monitor indoor and outdoor quality impacted by wildfire smoke.
At the individual level, Radu recommended people get familiarized with the AQHI so they know when it’s safe to go outside and create a support network with their loved ones — especially people who are vulnerable — to know when to look out for one another in the face of a wildfire or poor air quality.
Wearing masks outside where there’s poor air quality is another protective measure people can take, she noted.
Adams, meanwhile, said people who are exposed to the short-term effects of wildfires should stay inside while air quality advisories are in place. As for people who live in wildfire-prone areas, he recommended purchasing an air purifier and making sure their furnace and air conditioning filters are cleaned regularly to reduce the amount of contaminants in their home.
To mitigate the psychological impacts of wildfires, Radu encouraged getting at least seven to eight hours of sleep a night, eating healthy, engaging in indoor physical activity as much as possible and staying in contact with friends and family.
Feltmate said it’s crucial that Canada adapts to the extreme weather risks that are being felt across the country — from extreme heat, to flooding, to wildfires.
“As bad as things are now, they are going to get worse going forward for sure. Climate change is irreversible — period. It's here to stay. We're not going backwards. And we better learn to adapt and we know we need to adapt rapidly,” he said.
CTVNews.ca Top Stories
One RCMP officer was killed and two others were seriously injured while police were executing a search warrant at a home in Coquitlam, B.C., Friday.
There was 'shared intelligence among Five Eyes partners' that informed Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's public allegation of a potential link between the government of India and the murder of a Canadian citizen, United States Ambassador to Canada David Cohen confirmed to CTV News.
A Tim Hortons on University of Waterloo campus has been closed after a video of rats scurrying down one of the restaurant’s walls surfaced online.
When 19-year-old Jaxon Billyboy graduated high school in Williams Lake in June, it was a proud moment for his father Sheldon Bowe.
The suspension of Indian visa services for Canadians this week has prompted uncertainty among many who had hoped to travel to India in the near future. Here's what the visa centre closure could mean for India's sizable diaspora community in Canada, which is now caught in the middle of rising diplomatic tensions between the two countries.
Health Canada has issued a recall notice for the X-Lite Multi-Purpose Lighter, warning consumers about the potential fire and burn hazards associated with this product.
With the fall sitting of Parliament underway, Nanos ballot tracking shows the federal Conservatives continue to hold onto the lead they’ve had all summer while the Liberals remain stalled, and the NDP has managed to gain a bit of steam in third place.
Bob Menendez, 69, has survived politically for nearly five decades. The son of Cuban immigrants and an attorney by training, he was a Union City, New Jersey, school board member at age 20 -- before he graduated from law school -- and went on to become the mayor of the city. Here's some of what we know about him.
A Quebec man convicted of promoting hatred against Jews has been sentenced to 15 months in jail and three years of probation.
Premier Doug Ford is shuffling his cabinet for the second time in recent weeks after Ontario Labour Minister Monte McNaughton announced Friday he is stepping away from politics to move into the private sector.
A New York judge peppered Donald Trump's lawyers with questions Friday as they tried to persuade the court to throw out a civil lawsuit brought by New York's attorney general accusing the former president and his company of deceiving banks, insurers and others by exaggerating his wealth.
Waiting three weeks and counting to cross into Texas, Lila sat in a shelter on the Mexico border Friday feeling trapped: The cartels make it too dangerous to turn around and the U.S. government offers no guarantees if she keeps going.
Elijah McClain's mother left a Colorado courtroom in tears Friday after prosecutors showed video footage of the 23-year-old Black man pinned down by police officers during a fatal 2019 confrontation, which rose to prominence during nationwide protests over racial discrimination and excessive force in policing.
Tropical Storm Ophelia gained strength as it churned toward the North Carolina coast on Friday, promising a weekend of heavy rain and windy conditions throughout the mid-Atlantic.
America's hottest metro area is on track to set an annual record for heat-associated deaths after a sweltering summer, particularly in Phoenix.
During his historic visit, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy offered repeated thanks to Canada for its continued support for his country as it continues to defend itself from Russia's invasion. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced Canada will be making a $650 million 'multi-year commitment' for further Ukraine aid. Recap CTVNews.ca's minute-by-minute updates.
Canada is making a multi-year commitment to provide steady support to Ukraine, including hundreds of millions of dollars for new armoured vehicles.
A Toronto woman has completed 10 triathlons in 10 provinces to raise awareness and money for Alzheimer’s research in honour of her mom and all Canadians affected by the disease.
As Republican-led states have rushed to ban gender-affirming care for minors, care has abruptly been halted because medical providers are wary of harsh liability provisions in those same laws -- one of multiple reasons that advocates say care has become harder to access even where it remains legal.
Researchers said on Tuesday they have recovered RNA from the desiccated skin and muscle of a Tasmanian tiger stored since 1891 at a museum in Stockholm.
A Calgary medical student has developed an app that allows future doctors to work on their diagnostic and communication skills before they set up their practices.
In an ultra-sterile room at a secure factory in Kansas City, U.S. government technicians refurbish the nation's nuclear warheads. The job is exacting: Each warhead has thousands of springs, gears and copper contacts that must work in conjunction to set off a nuclear explosion.
Sabato De Sarno wants people to fall in love with Gucci again, calling his debut collection 'Gucci Ancora,' Italian for 'Gucci Again.'
This week, pop culture critic Richard Crouse reviews new movies 'Dumb Money,' 'Expend4bles' and 'Stop Making Sense.'
Right-wing Polish leaders denounced a new feature film by director Agnieszka Holland as it premiered in the country Friday, accusing the work of defaming Poland with its exploration of a migration crisis along the border with Belarus.
Autoworkers in the U.S. ramped up their strike Friday in a move that's expected to have knock-on effects for Canadian parts producers.
Amazon Prime Video will include advertising during shows and movies starting early next year, joining other streaming services that have added different tiers of subscriptions.
The escalating tension between Canada and India is jeopardizing delicate trade and investment relationships that the two sides have been working for years to advance, business leaders said.
A sanctuary just outside of Estevan is giving some of Saskatchewan’s smallest equines with special needs the opportunity for a forever home.
A Minneapolis gallery is asking US$10 million for 'A Walk in the Woods,' the first of more than 400 paintings that Bob Ross produced on-air for his TV series 'The Joy of Painting.'
Cycling company Shimano is recalling some 760,000 bike cranksets in the U.S. and Canada due to a crash hazard that has resulted in several reported injuries.
A new trophy, the Canadian Premier League Shield, will be presented to the regular-season winner. And the North Star Cup will replace the North Star Shield, which was previously awarded to the CPL's playoff champion from 2019 to 2022.
Ryan Reaves wasn't going to sign just anywhere.
The bid by four South American countries to host soccer's 2030 World Cup will stay intact until next year regardless of political tensions in the region, a top team bid official says.
U.S. autoworkers expand their strike to 38 locations in 20 states. Biden plans visit to show support
The United Auto Workers union expanded its strike against major carmakers Friday, walking out of all 38 parts-distribution centres operated by General Motors and Jeep and Ram owner Stellantis in 20 states but sparing Ford from further shutdowns.
A legal team that forced Tesla's directors to agree in July to return more than US$700 million in compensation to the automaker for allegedly overpaying themselves are now seeking a huge payday of their own.
General Motors and Stellantis announced fresh layoffs Wednesday that they blamed on damage from the United Auto Workers strike, and the labour standoff grew more tense just two days before the union was expected to call for new walkouts.