NAFTA: First round of talks over, 'great deal of negotiation' still required
U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, left, shakes hands with Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland, accompanied by Mexico's Secretary of Economy Ildefonso Guajardo Villarreal, after they spoke at a news conference at the start of NAFTA renegotiations in Washington on Wednesday, Aug. 16, 2017. (AP / Jacquelyn Martin)
WASHINGTON -- North American countries concluded their first round of negotiations toward a new continental trade agreement Sunday with a statement that suggested major issues needed to be sorted out in the talks ahead.
A joint statement from the three countries couldn't even agree what to call this process: A "modernization," which implies simple changes and is the preferred term of Canada and Mexico, or "renegotiation," the word most often used in the U.S.
The statement used both terms. In a joint communique issued as negotiators left Washington on Sunday afternoon, Canada, Mexico and the U.S. declared: "(We) launched the renegotiation and modernization.
The next round will be held in Mexico City from Sept. 1-5. The countries will in the meantime consult domestic stakeholders and prepare to table more texts that will form the backbone of a new agreement.
A third round will be held in Canada in late September.
There's considerable work ahead, the countries acknowledged in their statement: "While a great deal of effort and negotiation will be required in the coming months, Canada, Mexico and the United States are committed to an accelerated and comprehensive negotiation process."
Veterans of trade negotiations say this is the most ambitious schedule they've ever seen.
The countries are aiming to wrap up a trade deal within a few months, before the Mexican election heats up next spring -- because otherwise talks could drag out another year, past the U.S. congressional elections, and into 2019.
"Negotiations will continue at this rapid pace," said the statement.
The initial round was heavy on introductory sessions and schedule-setting. But it also touched substantive issues that revealed possible irritants ahead. Among the two-dozen-plus topics discussed so far were auto-parts rules, cutting edge pharmaceuticals, and labour.
On auto parts, the U.S. surprised its allies on Day 1 by hinting it might favour a Made In America-style content quota. The statement on that from U.S. trade czar Robert Lighthizer was vague and, according to sources, was not followed up by any specific numbers being tabled by the U.S. side in the initial round.
However, the idea was swiftly opposed by Canada, Mexico and the auto industry.
On pharmaceuticals, the U.S. has also proposed a 12-year patent-style protection for cutting-edge biologics medicines, sources say. This is significantly higher than the protections in Canada and Mexico, would drive up prices, and could be an irritant if the U.S. sticks to it.
However, it's no surprise this was the U.S. opening gambit. It was practically required under U.S. law. The domestic fast-track law that gives the White House the power to conduct trade negotiations demands that harmonizing intellectual property rules to American standards be a U.S. negotiating priority.
A report in Inside U.S. Trade said Canada has also presented demands on labour rights that would force the U.S. to sign all the International Labour Organization conventions. That's generally been a non-starter for the U.S.
Otherwise, the first round of talks was free of public drama.
President Donald Trump didn't even tweet about it. While forcing these three countries together for a major trade negotiation was the culmination of a key Trump campaign promise, the president didn't say a word about it, in a week consumed by drama over race relations and a planned announcement on the next U.S. moves in Afghanistan.
The one senior U.S. official to talk about it was Vice-President Mike Pence. As usual, in his comments on trade, as on other issues, Pence sounded more like a traditional Republican than his boss's America First-touting rhetoric.
"We seek a deal in the original spirit of NAFTA," Pence told an event in Panama.
"Canada and Mexico agree that NAFTA has significant room for improvement to ensure a level playing field for all. And as I told Prime Minister Trudeau last month, we will work together for a win-win-win outcome."
Pence also spoke of renegotiating -- and modernizing.