Following a deeply divisive election campaign, Americans have elected Donald Trump their next president.

Over the course of the campaign, Trump has made many controversial remarks about America’s relationship with other countries. Here’s what his presidency could mean for Canada:

Trade and the economy

Trump’s campaign trail proclamations could spell trouble for Canadian exporters.

He has slammed the North American Free Trade agreement as the “worst trade deal ever.” He is also against the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the proposed free trade agreement between a dozen Pacific Rim countries, including Canada.

One expert told The Canadian Press that Canadian officials have likely thought of specific proposals to update NAFTA and protect Canadian interests should Trump demand changes to the agreement or tear it up altogether. 

But others have pointed out that withdrawing from NAFTA is not that simple. The U.S. Congress would have to repeal the legislation that enables NAFTA.

Daniel Kiselbach, a partner at Deloitte Tax Law LLP, told last month that if Trump moves to ditch NAFTA, American importers would likely take the U.S. government to court.

Keystone XL and climate change

Trump has said that he would invite TransCanada to revive its application for the pipeline, which was vetoed by President Barack Obama. The pipeline would give Alberta crude a more direct route to refineries in the U.S.

Since Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has supported Keystone XL, a re-do of the pipeline approval process would likely be welcomed by the Canadian government. And if the pipeline is built in the coming years, it would be a much-needed boost for Alberta’s economy.

On the broader issue of climate change, Trump has vowed to “cancel” the Paris climate deal that U.S., Canada and nearly 200 other nations signed last year.

Security and defence

Trump has repeatedly vowed to deport illegal immigrants from the U.S. and institute “extreme vetting” of Muslim immigrants and refugees. He has also promised to implement a biometric entry-exit visa tracking system at all border crossings.

Since the U.S. and Canada work closely together on national security and border issues, this could create headaches for the Canadian government.

Trump has also threatened to withhold American military support from NATO if its partner countries don't meet their targeted defence spending. All NATO countries pledged to devote two per cent of their GDP to their defence budgets, but Canada is among the countries that don't hit that target. That’s another potential conflict with the U.S. once Trump is sworn in.

With files from CTV’s Laura Payton and The Canadian Press