Toronto, Vancouver and Calgary have topped a survey that ranked 50 international cities according to their “resiliency.”

Toronto came in first, with Vancouver and Calgary following in second and third place. No other Canadian cities were on the list.

The findings were part of a research report by Grosvenor, an international real estate development company. Chicago, Pittsburgh and Stockholm also rated well, following in 4th, 5th and 6th place overall.

The cities were ranked by their “vulnerability” and “adaptability,” which led to an overall ranking of most resilient cities. The survey measured factors such as climate, environment, infrastructure, governance, predicted population growth and resources.

“Canadian cities have a strong combination of low vulnerability and high adaptive capacity,” the report stated. “There is a high level of resource availability, and Canadian cities are well governed and well planned.”

Vancouver ranked in the top five in each category except climate vulnerability, where it ranked near the bottom due to its low-lying coastal location.

The report noted that in response to these vulnerabilities, British Columbia’s Environment Ministry has undertaken research into sea-levels. It also noted Vancouver’s “Greenest City 2020 Action Plan” that aims to make the city the greenest in the world.

“Vancouver also scores well in terms of funding structures, with a favourable country credit rating and good access to financial services within the city,” the report said.

Cities that received the lowest rankings included Dhaka, Jakarta and Cairo. The report said the cities’ weaknesses are a result of inequality, poor infrastructure and environmental degradation.

The report also said that London, which ranked 18th, suffers increasingly from social tensions due to lack of affordable housing.